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The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area. Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River , which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings.

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The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism , agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration.

The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as , French and English traders began exploring the New World , trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts.

These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In , the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts , beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England.

In , English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England , a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in with its major town and port of Boston established in Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy , led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts.

Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter. Octopus The octopus is a soft-bodied, eight-limbed mollusc of the order Octopoda. Around species are recognised, the order is grouped within the class Cephalopoda with squids and nautiloids. Like other cephalopods, the octopus is bilaterally symmetric with two eyes and a beak, with its mouth at the center point of the eight limbs; the soft body can alter its shape, enabling octopuses to squeeze through small gaps.

They trail their eight appendages behind them; the siphon is used by expelling a jet of water. Octopuses have a complex nervous system and excellent sight, are among the most intelligent and behaviourally diverse of all invertebrates. Octopuses inhabit various regions of the ocean, including coral reefs, pelagic waters, the seabed. Most species mature early and are short-lived.

During breeding, the male uses a specially adapted arm to deliver a bundle of sperm directly into the female's mantle cavity, after which he becomes senescent and dies; the female deposits fertilised eggs in a den and cares for them until they hatch, after which she dies. Strategies to defend themselves against predators include the expulsion of ink, the use of camouflage and threat displays, their abilities to jet through the water and hide, through deceit.

All octopuses are venomous. Octopuses appear in mythology as sea monsters like the Kraken of Norway and the Akkorokamui of the Ainu , the Gorgon of ancient Greece. Octopuses appear in shunga , they are eaten and considered a delicacy by humans in many parts of the world the Mediterranean and the Asian seas. The alternative plural "octopi" — which wrongly assumes it is a Latin second declension "-us" noun or adjective when, in either Greek or Latin, it is a third declension one — is considered grammatically incorrect, but is used enough to be acknowledged by the descriptivist Merriam-Webster 11th Collegiate Dictionary and Webster's New World College Dictionary.

The Oxford English Dictionary lists "octopuses", "octopi", "octopodes", in that order, reflecting frequency of use, calling "octopodes" rare and noting that "octopi" is based on a misunderstanding. The New Oxford American Dictionary lists "octopuses" as the only acceptable pluralisation, indicates that "octopodes" is still used, but that "octopi" is incorrect; the giant Pacific octopus is cited as the largest known octopus species. Adults weigh around 15 kg, with an arm span of up to 4.

The largest specimen of this species to be scientifically documented was an animal with a live mass of 71 kg. Much larger sizes have been claimed for the giant Pacific octopus: one specimen was recorded as kg with an arm span of 9 m.

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United States Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel - Biodiversity Heritage Library

A carcass of the seven-arm octopus, Haliphron atlanticus, weighed 61 kg and was estimated to have had a live mass of 75 kg; the smallest species is Octopus wolfi , around 2. The octopus is bilaterally symmetrical along its dorso-ventral axis; the head includes the brain.

The foot has evolved into a set of flexible, prehensile appendages, known as "arms", that surround the mouth and are attached to each other near their base by a webbed structure. The arms can be divided into four pairs; the two rear appendages are used to walk on the sea floor, while the other six are used to forage for food. The bulbous and hollow mantle is known as the visceral hump ; the mantle contains the gills.

Expertise. Insights. Illumination.

The mouth of an octopus , located underneath the arms, has a sharp hard beak; the skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, a connective tissue dermis consisting of collagen fibres and various cells allowing colour change. Most of the body is made of soft tissue allowing it to lengthen and contort itself; the octopus can squeeze through tiny gaps.

Lacking skeletal support, the arms work as muscular hydrostats and contain longitudinal and circular muscles around a central axial nerve, they can extend and contract, twist to left or right, bend at any place in any direction or be held rigid. The interior surfaces of the arms are covered with adhesive suckers. The suckers allow the octopus to manipulate objects; each sucker is circular and bowl-like and has two distinct parts: an outer shallow cavity called an infundibulum and a central hollow cavity called an acetabulum , both of whi. WorldCat WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72, libraries in countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative.

It is operated by Inc..

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The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. In , OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. In , it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website.

In , WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles. In December , WorldCat contained over million bibliographic records in languages, representing over 2. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day.

Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status.

However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library. Breeding, Marshall. Library Technology Reports. Matthews, Joseph R..

Public Library Quarterly. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston : Suffolk University Law School. Retrieved Official website "WorldCat". Boston Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of , in , making it the most populous city in New England.

Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel

Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, ; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston , a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8. Upon gaining U.

The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2, startups.

Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States ; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification , though it remains high on world livability rankings. Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, , was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus.

The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as BC. In , the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement , a key founding document of the city.


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Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars , until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the midth century. Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days.

However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in , a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver , the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts.

The British sent two regiments to Boston in in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists.