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You may want to single space the quote, but not the main part of your essay. This will allow the long block quotation to stand out even more. Do not use quotation marks; they are unnecessary because the spacing and indenting and citation will tell your reader this is a quote. Throughout the body of your paper, you must include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources.

The purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; you will provide more detailed information for each source you cite in text in the references section. In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead.

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When directly quoting a source, you must include the page number where the quote appears in the work being cited. This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples. Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence an optional piece of information to include and followed the title with a parenthetical citation.

Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. As long as you have included the essential information, you can use the option that works best for that particular sentence and source.

Citing a book with a single author is usually straightforward. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. In each of the sentences below, identify the mistakes with how the quote was incorporated.

Look carefully; some of them are tricky and have more than one error. Freedom of research is undoubtedly a cherished ideal in our society. In that respect, research has an interest in being free, independent, and unrestricted. Such interests weigh against regulations. On the other hand, research should also be valid, verifiable, and unbiased, to attain the overarching goal of gaining obtaining generalisable knowledge Simonsen, , p. According to Emlet, the rate in which older adults have contracted HIV has grown exponentially.

Emlet, The second one is redundant. There is an extra period before the citation. With a short quote, you put the end punctuation after the citation. The following subsections discuss the correct format for various types of in-text citations. Read them through quickly to get a sense of what is covered, and then refer to them again as needed. Include a page reference whenever you quote a source directly. See also the guidelines presented earlier in this chapter about when to include a page reference for paraphrased material. At times, your research may include multiple works by the same author.

If the works were published in different years, a standard in-text citation will serve to distinguish them. If you are citing multiple works by the same author published in the same year, include a lowercase letter immediately after the year. Rank the sources in the order they appear in your references section.

Rodriguez a criticized the nutrition supplement industry for making unsubstantiated and sometimes misleading claims about the benefits of taking supplements. Additionally, he warned that consumers frequently do not realize the potential harmful effects of some popular supplements Rodriguez, b.

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In this case, this is acceptable because this is referring to a different source written by the same person. Do so even if the publication years are different. Williams believes nutritional supplements can be a useful part of some diet and fitness regimens. Williams , however, believes these supplements are overrated.

According to two leading researchers, the rate of childhood obesity exceeds the rate of adult obesity K. Connelley, ; O. Connelley, Studies from both A. Wright and C. Wright confirm the benefits of diet and exercise on weight loss. Et al. Note that these examples follow the same ampersand conventions as sources with two authors. As Henderson et al. Disturbingly, some young women use smoking as a means of appetite suppression Henderson et al. Researchers have found that outreach work with young people has helped reduce tobacco use in some communities Costello et al.

Lengthy organization names with well-known abbreviations can be abbreviated. In your first citation, use the full name, followed by the abbreviation in square brackets.

Subsequent citations may use the abbreviation only. Another cause for concern is that even if patients realize that they have had a stroke and need medical attention, they may not know which nearby facilities are best equipped to treat them AHA, You may use the full title in your sentence or use the first few words—enough to convey the key ideas—in a parenthetical reference. Follow standard conventions for using italics or quotations marks with titles:.

To cite a source that is referred to within another secondary source, name the first source in your sentence. At times, you may provide more than one citation in a parenthetical reference, such as when you are discussing related works or studies with similar results. List the citations in the same order they appear in your references section, and separate the citations with a semicolon. Both of these researchers authored works that support the point being made in this sentence, so it makes sense to include both in the same citation.

The Change We Choose: Speeches 2007-2009

In some cases, you may need to cite an extremely well-known work that has been repeatedly republished or translated. Many works of literature and sacred texts, as well as some classic nonfiction texts, fall into this category. For these works, the original date of publication may be unavailable.

If so, include the year of publication or translation for your edition. Refer to specific parts or chapters if you need to cite a specific section.


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Discuss with your instructor whether he or she would like you to cite page numbers in this particular instance. In this example, the student is citing a classic work of psychology, originally written in German and later translated to English. To cite an introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword, cite the author of the material and the year, following the same format used for other print materials.


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  • Whenever possible, cite electronic sources as you would print sources, using the author, the date, and where appropriate, a page number. For some types of electronic sources—for instance, many online articles—this information is easily available. Other times, however, you will need to vary the format to reflect the differences in online media.

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    If an online source has no page numbers but you want to refer to a specific portion of the source, try to locate other information you can use to direct your reader to the information cited. Some websites number paragraphs within published articles; if so, include the paragraph number in your citation. Even if a source does not have numbered paragraphs, it is likely to have headings that organize the content. In your citation, name the section where your cited information appears, followed by a paragraph number. This student cited the appropriate section heading within the website and then counted to find the specific paragraph where the cited information was located.

    For personal communications, such as interviews, letters, and emails, cite the name of the person involved, clarify that the material is from a personal communication, and provide the specific date the communication took place. Note that while in-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, personal communications are an exception to this rule. They are cited only in the body text of your paper. Yardley, M. At work, you may sometimes share information resources with your colleagues by photocopying an interesting article or forwarding the URL of a useful website.

    Your goal in these situations and in formal research citations is the same: to provide enough information to help your professional peers locate and follow up on potentially useful information.

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    Provide as much specific information as possible to achieve that goal, and consult with your supervisor or professor as to what specific style he or she may prefer. The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section.

    In-text citations are necessary within your writing to show where you have borrowed ideas or quoted directly from another author. These are kept short because you do not want to disrupt the flow of your writing and distract the reader. While the in-text citation is very important, it is not enough to enable yourreaders to locate that source if they would like to use it for their own research. The references section of your essay may consist of a single page for a brief research paper or may extend for many pages in professional journal articles. This section provides detailed information about how to create the references section of your paper.

    You will review basic formatting guidelines and learn how to format bibliographical entries for various types of sources. As you create this section of your paper, follow the guidelines provided here. To set up your references section, use the insert page break feature of your word processing program to begin a new page. Note that the header and margins will be the same as in the body of your paper, and pagination will continue from the body of your paper.

    In other words, if you set up the body of your paper correctly, the correct header and page number should appear automatically in your references section.